Travel Glossary – Terms, Definitions and Acronyms
Terms, definitions and acronyms of the travel industry from A – Z. Click on a letter to see the terms and descriptions in our glossary.
Association of Corporate Travel Executives
The difference in fares collected when exchanging a ticket.
A selection added to a travel reservation, typically at an increased price.
Two rooms that are side-by-side but do not have a common connecting interior door.
Average Daily Rate. A hotel industry term used to calculate average hotel room rate. Equal to room revenue divided by rooms sold.
The advance time before travel that a fare requires a ticket to be issued, normally 3,7,14 or 21 days.
Agent Error. An incorrect entry made by a consultant during the reservation process.
AEA (see “Association of European Airlines”)
A US based travel agency that has entered into an agreement with BCD Travel to use the BCD Travel trademarks and provide travel services to customers in the affiliate’s territory.
Airlines Reporting Corporation
An independent corporation jointly owned by most of the major United States airlines; ARC collects payments for tickets sold by travel agencies and distributes the monies to the airlines; ARC also governs appointment of travel agencies to sell domestic air transportation.
The three-letter code used by airlines and the air travel industry to identify airports around the world, e.g. LHR=London Heathrow, JFK=New York John F. Kennedy. http://www.world-airport-codes.com/
Tax levied by certain airports throughout the world. In many cases this can be built into the total ticket price, although some airlines will not co-operate, thus making payable locally by the passenger.
On outbound journey’s, airside includes all those areas of the airport terminal after you have passed through passport control. On inbound journey’s, airside includes all those areas of the terminal before you pass through passport control.
A short-hop aircraft for up to 20 passengers, usually flying unscheduled services with a 200 / 500-mile range.
A hotel program which usually includes all meals, snacks, beverages and activities.
A joint partnership between specified carriers which may include, but not limited to, interlining, code-sharing, joint frequent flyer program participation, and even equity participation of stock ownership.
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, a government-subsidized corporation that operates all passenger train service in the United States.
Automatic Number Identification. A contact center term for a telephone network feature that passes that number of the phone the caller is using to the contact center, real-time.
American Plan. A hotel rate that includes breakfast and dinner, sometimes lunch.
Asia Pacific. A geographical term used interchangeably with ASPAC and often used in reference to the entire Asian market.
Advance Purchase Excursion Fare
The fare to be applied.
Accounts Receivable. Money which is owed by a customer to a company for products or services provided on credit.
ARC (see “Airlines Reporting Corporation”)
An eight-digit identification number issued by ARC to travel agencies who have met accreditation standards.
Arrival Unknown. An ARNK is added to a reservation when there is a break in the itinerary and continuity is not recognized; it does count as a segment when ticketing.
A continuous journey circumnavigating the globe in one general west-to-east or east-to-west direction in which both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans are crossed not more than once each.
ARR (see “Average room rate”)
Asia South Pacific. A geographic term used interchangeably with APAC.
Automated Ticket & Boarding Pass. IATA standard transportation ticket and combined boarding pass which features a magnetic strip containing passenger and journey details.
Average Ticket Price. The average price of all tickets purchased; domestic and international are sometimes calculated separately.
The total number of seats allowed to be sold at a particular rate.
average room rate (ARR)
Ratio of hotel’s sales revenue to the number of occupied rooms.
A series of tickets issued containing flights not in consecutive order to provide a lower fare; airlines require all tickets be used in the order in which the flights take place; we do not knowingly book back-to-back reservations as doing so may result in the loss of a client’s frequent flyer number and miles, loss of a client’s airline contract, issuance of a debit memo, or other penalties.
Having to return to your original airport of entry in a country to make the return trip home. A time-consuming and costly procedure to overcome by arranging an op-jaw itinerary, which allows you to fly out to one point and return from another.
Carry-on-baggage and checked baggage have many restrictions. Most notable are the number and size of the baggage. Many airlines allow only 1 carry-on bag, plus one personal item (purse, back-pack, computer bag). For checked baggage restrictions and fees, refer to the carrier’s website for details.
banker’s buying rate (BBR)
Exchange rate used to convert from one currency to another; called the ‘buying rate’ because it is the rate used when banks purchase currency from an individual
banker’s selling rate (BSR)
Exchange rate used to convert from one currency to another; called the ‘buying rate’ because it is the rate used when banks sell currency to an individual
Best Available Rate. A hotel industry pricing method for yielding room rates (floating) based on demand while ensuring the best rate is presented for sale to agents, consumers.
A fare without tax.
Measurement of hotel occupency.
Certain dates or periods when travel on specific fares is not permitted (usually holidays).
Multiple reservations, often subject to deposit forfeiture, which wholesalers or travel agents make with a supplier in anticipation of resale.
A permit to board a ship, plane, or other form of transportation. In the case of air travel, the card indicates boarding gate and aircraft seat number.
A letter code used to make an airline reservation at a particular fare level in a computerized reservation system. (CRS/GDS)
Bank Settlement Plan. Outside the USA, a system by which the travel agent community pays carriers for tickets it issues.
Business Travel Account. If a company has a corporate credit card program where certain purchases such as air, rail, and associated transaction fees are centrally billed to one “master” credit card number, this is referred to as the Business Travel Account (BTA). This account allows for the purchase of certain air travel expenses for corporate employees without the need to issue individual credit cards to each traveler for the designated expenses. Because the account has no physical card, it’s often called a “ghost card.”
BTC (see “Business Travel Center”)
Business Travel News. A travel industry publication that delivers news and research to the corporate travel population.
An unlicensed, unbonded travel agency used by some airlines to dispose of excess capacity seats that are available on certain flights.
For taxation purposes, an extension of the US border 225 miles north into Canada and 225 miles south into Mexico border; all cities within this area are assessed the 7.5% US domestic tax when tickets are purchased and sold in the US.
A net fare contract for certain number of seats. Similar to blocked space except that the tour operator, wholesaler, or travel agent usually contracts for airline seats at a low, non-commissioned price without the option of releasing space back to the airline.
A partition (usually a wall) on an airplane separating compartments.
Travel slang for the removal of a passenger from a flight through overbooking; usually applied to those holding concessionary tickets.
A pricing proposal, always a transaction fee, where elements other than air (e.g. car hire, hotel, rail) are included in the fee with the air transaction.
Level of airline service between First class and Economy class. On European routes business class has now replaced first class as premier service level. Most airlines have their own brand names. (e.g. British Airways – Club World and Club Europe: Air France – Le Club etc.)
Business Travel Center (BTC)
Standard full service and online service in a local call center, undedicated, team environment.
The advance time a hotel requires a booking to be canceled by to avoid being billed for the room
Another term for airline.
Credit Card. A system of payment whereby the issuer of the card grants a line of credit to the cardholder, to be used to make payment to a merchant or to withdraw cash.
Collision Damage Waiver. An industry term for optional insurance provided by car rental companies that eliminates all responsibility of the driver in an accident.
System under which a travel supplier, credit card company, agency or other supplier consolidates all costs/charges incurred by different employees or departments into one total invoice.
change of equipment
Also known as “change of gauge”. A single flight number used to represent flights on two different aircraft; usually on international destinations.
Notification to an airline or hotel that a traveler has arrived to take a flight or stay at a hotel; some airlines provide curbside check-in while others only allow check-in at the ticket counter.
Advice to a hotel that a guest is leaving the property and usually includes payment for the stay.
A traveler who has had his/her second birthday, but not yet his/her twelfth birthday (this definition may vary by carrier).
Churning refers to any repeated booking or canceling of the same itinerary in the same class or different classes of service in one or more PNRs or GDS.
Travel from IATA Area 1 (North and/or South America) to IATA Area 3 (Asia, Australia, South Pacific) by way of the North Pacific Ocean in one direction, via the South Pacific Ocean in the opposite direction, and at least one flight within IATA Area 3 that crosses the Equator.
circle trip (CT)
A journey from origin to destination with a return to origin in a continuous, circuitous route using two or more fare components
The orgin (from) and arrival (to) points of a trip, usually by air or train.
Airline office, usually city center, where passengers may check-in, receive seating details and board special bus/ taxi/ helicopter/ rail/ shuttle services to the airport.
class of service
The interior of an aircraft is divided into sections, each with a different level of service and amenities; common classes of service are first, business, and economy.
Cruise Lines International Association. An association dedicated to the promotion and growth of the cruise industry.
Section of a hotel offering higher security and special facilities either for a premium payment or as an incentive/ privilege for frequent users.
Fully flexible, redeemable business class ticket valid one year from date of issue. Phrase used primarily in the U.K.
Another term for bus.
Close of Business. A term meaning the end of the business day.
A marketing agreement between two airlines (very common amongst airlines that have an alliance) where a seat is purchased on one airline (the selling carrier), but the flight is actually operated by a different airline (the operating carrier).
Two or more fares shown separately in a fare calculation.
Computerized Reservation System
System used to book and process travel reservations, also known as a Global Distribution System (GDS).
A hotel employee who attends to guests’ needs for special information, theater and restaurant reservations, and any other special requests.
A flight which the passenger must change aircraft.
A stop in a given city for less than 4 hours (domestic US); less than 12 hours (domestic US as part of an international journey); less than 24 hours (international); continuing on the next applicable flight to an onward destination; designated by X/ in a linear fare construction line.
Two or more tickets concurrently issued to a passenger and which together constitute a single contract of carriage.
Two rooms that are side-by-side that have a common connecting interior door.
A group inclusive tour fare available to travel agents and other operators to construct packages to destinations which are inclusive of accomodation. Consolidation fares, although group fares, are for sale to individual passengers.
A person or company which forms groups to travel on charter or at group fares on scheduled flights to increase sales, earn override commissions or reduce the chance of tour cancellations.
A group of independent companies that join together to gain greater profits.
A city through which fares have been combined for the purpose of pricing an itinerary; a destination city or a turnaround point; a fare break shown on the ticket.
A contact center term for an individual who is calling or visiting your company by phone or through the website, and who is requesting an interaction with an agent.
An umbrella term that generally refers to reservations centers, help desks, information lines or customer service centers, regardless of how they are organized or what types of transactions they handle.
A light breakfast of such things as coffee, pastry and sometimes juice.
contract fare / contract discount
A discounted fare agreed upon by the client and a carrier; contract fares require a client give the carrier a certain percentage of its business in all markets.
A discounted airfare for business travelers.
A special rate negotiated between a supplier (hotel or car for example) and a company.
Corporate Travel Department (CTD)
A CTD (Corporate Travel Department) establishes a direct purchasing relationship between the company and its travel suppliers. The accrediting body, ARC (Airline Reporting Corporation) authorizes the company to function as its own “travel agency” and control it’s financial settlement.
A group of cities/airports considered to be the same point; example: JFK/LGA/EWR.
country of commencement (COC)
The country in which a journey begins; the base fare is converted from NUCs into the currency of the Country of Commencement by using the IATA ROE.
country of payment (COP)
The country in which a ticket is being purchased; the base fare is converted from the currency of the Country of Commencement into the currency of the country of payment using the Bank Rate if the countries are not the same.
Cost Per Mile. A calculation of the average price paid per mile.
Cost Per Transaction. A calculation of the total cost a company incurs for generating a customer transaction.
Customer Relationship Management. A term used for a database that is used to house and maintain customer information.
CRS (see “Computerized Reservation System”)
Corporate Social Responsibility. A concept whereby companies consider the impact to society and the environment of their actions.
Central Security Record. A hotel industry term for the name of the Viewership Management Table used to maintain a list of offices authorized to access a client’s negotiated hotel rates.
Central Standard Time. A time zone in the US, also known as Central Time or CT.
Corporate Travel Department. A company’s in-house travel agency that purchases air transportation and related travel services on behalf of its own employees.
Computer Telephony Integration. A contact center term for the software, hardware, and programming necessary to integrate computers and telephones so they can work together seamlessly and intelligently.
A checkpoint at which imported goods are verified for legality and value.
Data Release Authorization (DRA)
Under a DRA, Client instructs, as of the date specified, BCD Travel to receive, process, and/or transfer certain personal travel data from Client’s travelers, including, but not limited to, transactional ticket-level, segment-level, and traveler-level information, which may include, without limitation, traveler name and address, origination and destination, corporate and/or personal credit card number, passport number, drivers license, travel preferences, and other special needs or any other sensitive data as may be provided by or behalf of the travelers (“Travel Data”).
Decision Source (DS)
A BCD Travel product that allows our customers to interact with their reservation data.
An inclusive rate for meetings on a daily basis. Twenty-four hour delegate rate also includes accommodation. Phrase primarily used in the U.K.
denied boarding compensation (DBC)
Commonly called “bumping,” – When more passengers arrive to take a flight than can actually fit on the plane; although legal, the carrier is only responsible for providing compensation to a traveler if he/she has a confirmed reservation and is checked in and has arrived at the departure gate within a pre-determined time period; compensation may be in cash or in a voucher for future travel; passengers who voluntarily relinquish their seats are compensated with a cash payment or voucher towards a future trip and are then accommodated on the next available flight; if an airline delivers a bumped passenger to his/her destination within an hour of the originally-scheduled time, no compensation is required.
Originally applied to American air travel: in 1978, federal law phased out the civil Aeronautics Board and stopped government intervention or regulation of airline routes and fares.
The final stopping place as shown on the ticket; the furthest point on a fare component used to price an itinerary.
Destination Management Company
Company, possibly an incoming tour operator, who organizes local ground services at destination.
The difference between the fares for two different classes of service between two cities; this fare construction principle is only used internationally.
The fare for one-way or half round-trip travel visa the shortest route operated between two cities.
A flight from origin to destination that makes one or more intermediate stops, but passengers do not change planes.
Fare valid only in a specified direction of travel.
Transportation fare lower than the full published tariff for an airline’s route. A discount fare usually entails certain stipulations regarding purchase or travel (space availbility).
DMC (see “Destination Management Company”)
Travel wholly within any one country; typically used to designate intra-US travel.
A hotel room with two double beds and/or accommodating 2-4 people.
The practice of making reservations for two or more flights, cars or hotels as a type of backup; considered to be unethical.
The way in which almost all cruise fares and tour packages are quoted, that is, based on two people traveling together. Most hotel rooms are quoted based on two adults to a room, as well.
double open jaw (DOJ)
Travel in which the outbound departure point and arrival and the inbound point of departure and arrival are not the same.
To move a passenger to a lower class of service or accommodation.
A fee charged for dropping a rental car at a different location from where it was picked up.
Being exempt from any import tax.
The rear area of the aircraft in which passengers having paid one of the lower fare types are seated.
electronic miscellaneous document – Associated (EMD-A)
Document that allows for the fulfillment of all flight related services and fees (such as bags, seats, meals, etc.). An EMD or EMD-A is linked to a specific eticket coupon in the airline’s database.
electronic miscellaneous document – Standalone (EMD-S)
Non-flight related services (such as lounge access or change fee collection) a stand alone EMD, a EMD-S is issued. To issue an EMD-S a manually created service segment must be in the PNR. Specific services that can be charged on an EMD-S is dependent on the airline’s own requirements.
electronic ticket (eticket)
An airline transportation ticket that is entirely in a GDS; no physical ticket is required for travel.
EMD (see “electronic miscellaneous document”)
Permission from the plating carrier, the ticketed carrier or the carrier losing air space for the traveler to use the flight coupon(s) for travel on another airline at no additional cost; usually only required for international tickets.
A special type of combination in which two round trip fares are combined to produce a complete itinerary.
In this example, the passenger buys a round trip ticket from AAA to BBB (Rule 1), and a separate round trip fare from BBB to CCC (Rule 2). The net effect is to travel from AAA to CCC, but breaking the fare at BBB, which may in some cases be less expensive than the round trip (through) fare from AAA to CCC.
equivalent fare paid
An amount converted into the currency of the country of payment when the published fare is in a currency other than that of the country of payment.
ERA (see “European Regions Airline Association”)
Eastern Standard Time. A time zone in the US, also known as Eastern Time or ET.
Electronic System for Travel Authorization. ESTA is a free, automated system that determines the eligibility of visitors to travel to the U.S. under the Visa Waiver Program. The ESTA application collects the same information collected on Form I-94W. ESTA applications may be submitted at anytime prior to travel, though it is recommended travelers apply when they begin preparing travel plans.
Estimated Time of Arrival. A measure of when an object is expected to arrive at a certain place.
Estimated Time of Departure or Delivery. The expected start time of a particular journey or the expected delivery of a good or service.
e-ticket (see “electronic ticket”)
Electronic Ticket Record.
European Regions Airline Association
Association which aims to identify, protect and promote the interests of regional air transport in Europe. Over 170 memebers including airlines, aircraft manufacturers and airports. www.eraa.org
Baggage in excess of the allowable number, size or weight.
The process of reissuing a ticket due to a change of flight, fare basis, dates or routing.
Round-trip fare with restrictions, such as minimun and maximum stays and the need to purchase well in advance.
Types of privilege cards available to frequent users of airlines, hotel chains, car rental companies, etc. Most carry benefits and have their own brand names, e.g. British Airways Executive Blue, Executive Silver, Executive Gold and Premier.
Higher grade than standard room and usually slightly larger, the executive room often has additional facilities for the business traveler such as trouser press, desk etc. and may be located on a separate Executive Club Floor.
Expatriot (or expat)
An expatriate (in abbreviated form, expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of the person’s upbringing or legal residence.
explant/ outplant/ offsite
Branch office dedicated to serving a single client that is not located on the client’s premises, but rather operates as a separate part of a BTC.
A complimentary or reduced-rate travel program for travel agents, airline or rail employees, which is designed to acquaint participants with specific destinations. Often known as “Fam-Trips”.
A hotel rate that allows children to stay free with adults in the same room.
A combination of letters and numbers used to identify a fare type which may also indicate the rules of the fare
Fare Basis Code Example
|A or AP||Advance Purchase|
|D||Fare valid on a specified day(s)|
|H||High season/high traffic|
|N or NR||Non-refundable|
|P||Penalty for change/cancel|
|Z||Fare valid on a specified day(s)|
|1234567||Day of the week; 1= Mon, 2= Tue, etc.|
|1,3,7,14,21,30||Number of days in advance of travel the|
ticket must be purchased
A fare between two points.
A vertically-written fare construction that includes fare components, surcharges and additional amounts collected.
- fee – bundled air transaction fee
An air transaction fee that includes the costs associated with servicing air, hotel and car transactions. Therefore, hotel and car only bookings (not to exceed XX% of air bookings) are not charged a transaction fee.
- fee – management fee
Fee assessed in addition to direct costs. Covers primarily overhead and profit. Can be assessed as % of sales, per transaction or fixed amount.
- fee – management fee structure (formerly cost plus offering)
Client fee arrangement whereby direct expenses are passed through to the client in addition to management fee. Management fee could be % of sales, fixed fee, or per transaction.
- fee – online booking tool fee (PNR fee)
Charged per unique reserved PNR. Additional fees may be assessed for transactions booked on a website accessed via the online booking tool.
- fee – online transaction fee (e-fulfillment fee)
Charged per online transaction – that excludes any ‘flow through costs’ charged by the online booking tool provider.
- fee – transaction fee structure
Client fee arrangement whereby client is billed per transaction for all major program costs including direct expenses and contribution to overhead and profit, usually at POS.
- fee – unbundled (menu) transaction fee
Separately charged per each type of transaction, e.g. hotel, car, rail and air. AM and MIS costs might also be charged separately.
The last point on an itinerary/fare component.
The cabin on an aircraft where there are fewer seats, more elaborate service and amenities.
FIT (see “Fully Independent Traveler”)
The airline that internationally represents a given country; sometimes financed or owned by the government.
A section of an airline ticket; one flight coupon is required to take each flight.
A fare rule that requires a to fly on a specific flight or at a specific time of day.
FOI (see “Form of Indemnity”)
Form of Payment. The method of payment for a transaction.
form of indemnity
A form that needs to be completed by the passenger in order to claim refund in respect of an air ticket that has been misplaced or stolen.
frequent flyer program
An airline loyalty program that provides awards to travelers who use an airline or its partners.
frequent guest program
A hotel loyalty program that provides awards to guests who use a hotel chain.
frequent renter program
A car rental loyalty program that provides services (such as fast pickup) to those who use a car rental vendor.
front office (FO)
An industry term used for products associated with customer-facing activities. The GDS is a front office system.
A surcharge assessed for fuel use applicable for travel between specified points and/or for departure from a specified city.
Hotel rate with accommodation, breakfast, lunch and dinner included.
This is a fully flexible, fully refundable ticket which is valid for one year from date of issue in economy class.
Change an already ticketed reservation, with no flown flight segments.
full to full exchange
Change to a ticketed reservation when no segments are flown and the change is to any segment other than the outbound flights. Or when a segment has been flown and there is a change to a remaining flight segment. In either of these instances, the FULL value of the original ticket must be exchanged for the ‘combined’ FULL value of the new ticket.
fully independent traveler
A traveler / tourist not part of a tour group.
One of the world’s CRSs (GDSs).
Area in an airport where passengers for a flight gather before boarding their flight or deplane on arrival.
The last domestic city from which a passenger departs prior to arriving at an international destination; the first point of arrival in a given country (e.g., on the journey SFO-CHI-FRA-MUC, CHI and FRA are gateway cities).
GDS (see “Global Distribution System”)
GDS Operations (GDSO)
An industry term for computer reservation systems that book and sell tickets for multiple airlines.
GEBTA (see “Guild of European Business Travel Agents)
In the credit card industry a system used by corporations whereby travel related charges made through designated travel agencies are centrally billed but no plastic card actually exists. Often referred to as “Lodge card” in Europe.
global distribution system
An industry term for computer reservation systems that book and sell tickets for multiple airlines.
Two-letter code used to identify the direction of travel applicable to a given fare.
The airline whose fares and rules are used on a given itinerary.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
Solar based time in Greenwich, England, from which time in all other time zones in the world is based.
The time not flying.
A booking solution that allows the booking and managing of all ground transportation services, such as limousines, executive sedans, taxis, vans and parking services.
A fare that offers discounts to groups of varying minimum sizes in selected markets, with various conditions, and usually require round trip travel within a specified time limit.
guaranteed hotel reservations
This means that the hotel will hold the room all night. However if the room is not required, failure to cancel will result in a charge. Where reservations are made on an ad hoc basis, rather than through a regular account arrangement, a credit card number will be required to effect this guaranteed reservation.
Hotel rate for accommodation, breakfast and one other meal.
half round trip fare
Half of a fare designated for use on round-trip journeys.
Fee or tax some countries or cities levy on arriving or departing travelers.
Half of the globe; the North and South hemispheres are divided by the Equator; the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans divide the East and West hemispheres.
higher intermediate point (HIP)
A pair of cities within a one-way or half round-trip fare component that has a direct fare higher than the direct fare between the origin and destination of the fare component; this fare construction principle is only used internationally.
An airport at which an airline centers many of its schedules, particularly connecting flights to smaller destinations.
(see “International Air Transport Association”)*
IATA Number (see “ARC Number”)
IATA Rate of Exchange (ROE)
Rates of exchange designated by IATA to convert local currency to NUCs and to convert NUCs into the currency of commencement of travel.
ICAO (see “International Civil Aviation Organization”)
Interline e-ticket. An interline agreement between airlines that allow e-ticketing on each other’s flights. Interline agreement between airlines permitting travel service cooperation in areas such as: baggage transfer services, guaranteed connection times.
IGK (see “International Gatekeeper”)
Area at which a traveler’s documentation (e.g., Passport and Visa) are verified to ensure the traveler may enter the country.
Dedication operational team, based within an office of the client.
Phase of launching a new relationship, including e.g. opening a new location, training staff, installing technical equipment, and informing clients, travelers and travel arrangers.
Travelers coming into a specified location are considered inbound. Travelers departing from the location are considered outbound.
A traveler who has not yet reached his/her second birthday.
Term used in the U.S. to describe an implant.
international departure taxes
Taxes levied on all travelers departing a country on an international journey that are, typically collected at the airport at the time of departure.
Between two airlines; TUS-HP-DEN-UA-LON is an interline journey.
interline baggage agreement
An agreement between two air carriers that a carrier will transfer baggage to the other carrier.
When a passenger changes airlines as well as aircraft during a journey (same as off-line connection).
interline ticketing agreement
An agreement between two air carriers that permits air travel of one carrier to be on a ticket issued and/or ‘plated’ on another carrier.
A ticketed point of an international journey at which there is no fare break; an intermediate point may be a stopover or connection.
An enroute stop at a city between the origin and destination (see also Direct Flight).
International Air Transport Association
The world trade association of international air carriers; appoints travel agencies to sell tickets; determines rules and regulations for international carriers. www.iata.org
International Civil Aviation Organization
Specialed agency of the United Nations with responsibility for civil aviation action in standardization, technical co-operation and the formulation of international aviation law. www.iaco.int
A chronological plan showing a traveler’s booked arrangement.
A special through fare (usually only internationally) that permits travel on two or more different airlines.
The origin to final destination of a fare construction.
BCD Travel provides support for KDS. KDS provides an online booking platform for the confirmation of air, car, hotel and rail itineraries.
On outbound journeys, landside includes all those areas of the terminal before you arrive at passport control. On inbound journeys, landside includes all those areas of the terminal after you’re through passport control.
last date of purchase
The date by which a ticket must be issued – fares are not guaranteed until tickets are issued.
last room availability (LRA)
A hotel industry term for ensuring a negotiated rate is always available when standard inventory is available or when the room type negotiated is available.
LDW (see “Loss Damage Waiver”)
One flight; one part of an entire journey.
Lowest Fare Routing. The least expensive airfare available to a destination.
local currency fare (LCF)
See Country Of Payment (COP).
Unique identifying booking number used within a computer reservations system as part of a booking file.
In the credit card industry a system used by corporations whereby travel related charges made through designated travel agencies are centrally billed but no plastic card actually exists. Often referred to as “Ghost Card” in the U.S.
Loss Damage Waiver
Additional insurance pertaining to car rentals, covering theft and vandalism in addition to accident damage.
low cost carrier (LCC)
An airline that offers generally low fares in exchange for eliminating many traditional passenger services.
lowest combination principle
Construction of a fare using a particular combination of sector fares to provide the lowest fare when there is no published fare between two points.
Specialized travel services, available 24/7, provides travel arrangements (including helicopters and charter aircraft) for marine personnel.
Market Number (MK)
A code all online booking tools (OBTs) add at the time each reservation is made, as a way to track PNRs for online adoption and fulfillment purposes. It should never be removed once added to the PNR.
Two or more connecting flight segments joined, or “married,” meaning that these segments are inseparable and the subsequent rebooking or cancellation of any one flight segment must, at the same time, be applied to the connecting flight segment.
maximum permitted mileage (MPM)
The number of miles that may be flown on a published direct fare between origin and destination; this fare construction principle is only used internationally.
The maximum amount of time a traveler may stay at a destination before return is required.
MCO (see “Miscellaneous Change Order”)
Meetings, Incentives and Corporate Events. An industry term for a department within a company that offers meeting planning services to customers. BCD Travel’s department is called BCD M&E
An industry term for the management information (MIS) portion of a travel agency’s system.
A fare based on the total miles flown from the origin to destination; this fare construction principle is only used internationally.
A percentage of fare increase applied to a fare because the routing exceeds the maximum permitted mileage; the percentage is in 5% increments to a maximum of 25%; this fare construction principle is only used internationally.
minimum connection time
The amount of time required to change planes; varies by airport and often varies by carrier.
The minimum time a travel traveler must stay at a destination (or be gone ‘away from home’ internationally) before return travel can commence.
miscellaneous charge order (MCO)
An accountable document issued by a travel agency or airline as proof of payment for a specific fee (such as pet service fee) or as residual amount of an exchange (higher priced ticket exchanged for a lower priced ticket) to be used on a future purchase.
Mountain Standard Time. A time zone in the US, also known as Mountain Time or MT.
National Business Travel Association
U.S. business travel association which is a member of IBTA. www.nbta.org
NBTA (see “National Business Travel Association”)
This is a term used by travel agents to descibe reduced airfares that have been negotiated by their air fare specialists on behalf of clients.
neutral units of construction (NUC)
An imaginary currency established by IATA that allows fares of different currencies to be added together; this fare construction principle is only used internationally.
Non Last Room Availability. A hotel industry term for restricting availability of a negotiated rate when occupancy levels are high. Negotiated room rate is not guaranteed to be available.
Net Operating Income. A financial term for the amount by which operating revenue exceeds operating expenses in a specific accounting period.
This expression often appears in the endorsements box of an airline ticket and it means that the flight coupon on which the worlds appear may be used only on the services of the airline indicated.
A ticket issued on a fare that does not allow for a refund; most non-refundable tickets can be changed for a fee and any difference in fare.
The full fare established for first, business, economy or an intermediate class and any other fares published designated as normal fares.
normal open jaw (NOJ)
Travel from a country and return to the same country with a surface sector at either the origin or turnaround point (single open jaw – SOJ) or at both the origin and the turnaround point (double open jaw – DOJ).
An airline passenger or hotel guest who fails to use and/or cancel a reservation.
National Transportation Safety Board. An independent US government agency that investigates accidents including aviation, highway, marine, pipelines and railroads.
OBT and OBLT (see Online Booking Tool”)
Usually a car rental office serving an airport but physically located off the airport site (and often picking up renters at the airport in buses or taxis). When the office is located on-site, the term used is on airport location.
A destination that a carrier does not serve; see also Interline.
When a traveler changes airlines as well as aircraft during a journey (may also be referred to as interline connection). Changes of aircraft with the same airline are known as on-line connections.
offline transaction (traditional transaction)
A transaction that initated by an agent following a call/email request by a client.
Time of year or day of the week when travel is less common.
Airline term to describe points (areas or cities) they do not serve.
This occurs when an airline has over-booked: that is, it has sold more seats on a particular flight than the aircraft has to offer. The passengers to be off-loaded are usually those who have paid the lowest fares. Off-loaded passengers will normally qualify for denied boarding compensation. Passengers may also be off-loaded at the captain’s discretion if they are unfit to travel due to drink, drugs, illness or for bad behavior.
BCD Travel is a re-seller of onesto. On-esto provides an online booking platform for the confirmation of air, car, hotel and rail itineraries.
Online Booking Tool
A web-based platform allowing travelers to make self-service reservations (e.g. Cliqbook, GetThere).
In a codeshare, the airline providing the plane, crew and ground handling services.
online or online point
On the same carrier; TUS-UA-DEN-UA-LON is an online journey.
An account’s use of their predetermined online booking tool.
online high touch transaction
A transaction that originates via an online booking tool, but then requires more than one agent intervention (one touch).
online low touch transaction
A transacion that originates via an online booking tool, and then requires agent intervention or manual review/processing that is initated by the customer.
online transaction fee
A fulfillment fee canged per online trasaction – that excludes any ‘flow through costs’ charged by the online booking tool provider.
A BCD Travel office located at/on/in a client’s location.
Term used to describe the principle of showing a client the complete cash-flow cycle, including commissions and overrides.
open date sector
Part of a journey for which no firm reservation has been made (usually owing to changeable plans on the part of the traveler) but for which the fare has been paid.
open jaw ticket
Where passengers fly out to one destination and return from another. Open jaw arrangements save backtracking and make a trip more cost effective.
Much-used term for unrestricted air services between several countries.
A ticket valid for transportation between two points but has no specific flight reservation.
The first airline of a passenger’s journey and/or portion of a trip.
Other Service Information. A GDS entry that provides information to a carrier that does not require action for traveler action such as contract discount code, record locators of additional family members traveling together (TCP), age information for children/infants, etc.
Travel from the point of origin to the farthest destination.
Dedication operational team, based within a BTC office.
Also known as bumping. Airlines and hotels can predict, with some accuracy, how many travelers/guests will show up for previously made reservations; when more people show up than what is expected, travelers/guests are re-accommodated; see also Denied Boarding Compensation.
Abbreviations for ‘passport and visa’ used in the U.K. Some affliates have a specialist team which advises on and acquires passports/visa on behalf of their clients.
Pacific Asia Travel Association
Association which aims to promote travel to Asia Pacific. www.pata.org
PAR (see “Passenger Account Record”)
passenger account record
In Galileo, the profile showing passenger information.
passenger facility charges
An airport-designated surcharge to raise funds for airport expansion, renovation, operating costs, etc.
passenger name record
Record held within a CRS/GDS which gives the personal details associated with a particular booking.
An official document issued by a government to its citizens that establishes an individual’s identity and nationality and enables travel abroad.
PATA (see “Pacific Asia Travel Association”)
Abbreviation for passengers.
Payment Card Industry. Security standards set to help protect account data information.
Time of year or day of the week when travel is most common.
A fee charged by a carrier or vendor for changing and/or canceling a reservation or ticket.
Penalty excursion fare. Public excursion fare are within minimum stay requirements, but which has no advanced purchase requirements.
PIR (see “Property Irregularity Report”)
plate / plated
See Validating Carrier.
PMS (see “Property Management System”)
PNR (see “Passenger Name Record”)
Purchase Order. A commercial document issued by a buyer to a seller that indicates the quantities and agreed upon prices for products / services.
De-regulation has led to a growing number of these on routes throughout the world. They are low fares in first, business, or economy class between two points by direct flights. Stopovers are usually, but not always, prohibited.
Point of Service or Point of Sale. The time and place in which a transaction is made.
prepaid ticket advice (PTA)
A form used when a person is buying a ticket that will be issued at the airport of the same or a different city. Example: A ticket purchased in Chicago to be picked up by the traveler in and for a departure from Buenos Aires.
A product offered by travel management companies that allows for the review of travel itineries before departure to identify savings or prevent unnecessary expenditure.
pricing unit (PU)
A journey, or part of a journey which can be priced and ticketed as a separate entity; a round-trip, circle trip, one-way, normal open jaw or special open jaw; this fare construction principle is only used internationally.
pricing unit concept (PUC)
An alternative method of fare construction for multiple-stopover journeys that uses pricing units; this fare construction principle is only used internationally.
Airline flying the governing sector (prime segment).
The first “true” international journey; often called the “over-the-water” segment; see also Gateway.
A computerized file containing company and traveler information.
A fare designed to attract passengers who would not otherwise travel.
proof of citizenship
Documentation that establishes nationality.
property irregularity report
Form submitted by passengers to ground handling agents at airports in the event of loss or damaged baggage.
property management system
Computer-based system for controlling hotel inventory, check-in and -out and billing.
Pacific Standard Time. A time zone in the US, also known as Pacific Time or PT.
PTA (see “Pre-paid Ticket Advice”)
public fares (air)
Fares that anyone can obtain and is available in a regular fare display.
Quality of Service Index. An index developed by the Civil Aeronautics Board to provide a comparative rating of service offered by individual airlines.
A computer’s electronic filing system. Also a contact center term for the holding point for a number of calls or interactions that are waiting to be answered by an agent. The calls or interactions are usually assigned to available agents in a first-arrived, first-answered basis, but may also be assigned based on a company’s routing strategies.
A contact center term for a group of virtual queues. Also referred to as a DN Group or Group of Queues.
The official posted rate for each hotel room.
rate desk (see “International Rate Desk”)
rate of exchange (ROE) (see “IATA Rate of Exchange”)
BCD Travel is a referrer for Rearden. Rearden provides an online booking platform for the confirmation of air, car, hotel and rail itineraries.
reason codes (RC)
An industry term for codes used to document and report on traveler decisions and behavior.
Particularly on international flights, passengers are required to indicate their intention of using the next leg of their itinerary by contacting the appropriate carrier before departure; internationally, reconfirmation is requested 72 hours prior to departure.
A computerized number that identifies a Passenger Name Record – PNR or other reservation; when speaking to travelers, usually called a confirmation number.
Usually an overnight flight that arrives early in the morning – great when you don’t want to lose precious sightseeing time at your destination.
If necessary for a passenger to change journey en route, the ticket must be reissued. The value of the original ticket will be offset against the new fare and any extra or refund, calculated. Settlement can be direct with airline or with referral to the issuing agent.
BCD Travel is a re-seller for ResX. ResX provides an online booking platform for the confirmation of air, car, hotel and rail itineraries.
A journey for which the fare is assessed as a single pricing unit using half round-trip fares.
If the passenger’s travel date or flight needs to be changed, without affecting the route, there is not always a need to reissue the ticket. The relevant flight coupon is simply revalidated by means of a revalidation sticker.
Revenue Per Available Room. A hotel industry measure that calculates room revenue divided by rooms available (occupancy times average room rate will closely approximate RevPAR.)
Rate Loading Instructions. A hotel industry term for the instructions provided to hotel properties for loading client-specific or TMC-specific rate codes as displayed in the GDS.
room with facilities
Describes a hotel room which has a bathroom en-suite. In some smaller two-star or three-star hotels facilities may refer to toilet and washbasin only.
round-the-world (RTW) (see “Around-the-World”)
A trip that begins and ends in the same city with no un-flown portions; internationally, with the same dollar amount on both portions .
route deal / route incentive
An agreement between a corporate customer and an airline. The agreement allows for an incentive payment to be made to the cient by the airline as a reward for loyalty.
The carrier and/or cities and/or class of service and/or aircraft type via which transportation is provided between two points.
A fare based on a specified routing.
A flat rate for which a hotel offers any of its available rooms.
A special visa that permits holders to travel to any of the 25 Schengen member countries on a single visa (rather than obtaining a visa for each country. It is only issued to citizens of countries who are required to obtain a visa before entering Europe for leisure, tourism or business travel. Schengen Visa holders are not permitted to live permanently or work in Europe. The following countries are currently active Schengen Visa members: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland.
A specific time of year for a fare; High Season is the most popular time of year to travel to a specific destination and fares are more expensive at that time; Low Season is the least popular time of year to travel to a specific destination and fares are less expensive at that time; Fares affected by seasonality are usually indicated as such by fare basis coding and/or seasonality details listed in the fare’s rules.
The distance between aircraft seats, measured in inches and commonly used to show a passenger’s legroom.
Surcharge assessed by a carrier to cover costs of airport and in-flight security.
Airline(s) flying the sectors preceding and/or succeeding the prime segment.
A journey from one point to another.
A flight; see Leg.
Situation where the traveler makes his/her own reservations. A reservation generated by the customer using an online booking tool.
In a codeshare, the airline offering the flight for sale, under their vendor code
A fee charged by a travel agency to a company/individual for travel services.
Service Level Agreement
An agreement stating measurable performance commitments made to our customers.
Regular or schedulable bus/van transportation such as from an airport to a downtown location; regular air service on heavily-traveled routes (e.g., BOS-LGA).
A journey from and/or to an enroute point of a fare component.
Accommodations designed for one person.
SLA (see “Service Level Agreement”)
Designated take-off and landing times allocated to airlines at certain airports.
Period when new hotel is open for business although not entirely finished – some services of facilities may not yet operate.
Standard Operating Procedure. A set of instructions that define the official standard for a specific process or situation.
Scope of Services. A document that defines the number, type, and intensity or complixity of services to be provided.
Confirmation of a reservation subject to availability at the last moment.
Atypical traveler needs such as a special meal or wheelchair service.
Issuance of two or more tickets usually for the purpose of obtaining a lower fare; usually applied to international itineraries to take advantage of fare and/or currency conversion differences.
This type of are applies to selected destinations on a round-trip only basis and offers a discount of 50% to the spouse of a full first class or business class passenger. Economy passengers also qualify where there is no business fare.
SSR (see “Self Service Reservation”)
Special Service Request. A GDS request for a carrier to provide additional action for a traveler such as special meal, ticket number transmission, wheelchair, etc.
The normal hotel room type, generally with television, and en-suite bathroom.
A passenger on waitlist or one prepared to travel if space becomes available at the last moment.
Interruption of travel for more than domestic US – 4 hours; domestic US as part of an international journey – 12 hours; international – 24 hours .
An additional fee assessed for making a stopover.
STP (see “Satellite Ticket Printer”)
Any extra literature included with the delivery of travel documents.
A self-contained pricing unit that is combined end-on-end with another self-contained pricing unit on the same ticket; this fare construction principle is only used internationally.
An airline-imposed fee included in fare calculations; see also Excess Mileage Surcharge, Fuel Surcharge, and Security Surcharge.
Travel from one point or another not by air (ARNK – which stands for Arrival Not Known).
Travel 24. A BCD Travel department that services customers 24 hours a day when their normal business office is closed.
Ticket Fulfillment Location. An industry term for a virtual ticket printer that is shared by various BCD Travel ARC ticketing locations on the same GDS.
A fare applicable for transportation via an enroute city(ies) between the origin and destination of the fare that allows for intermediate points of travel.
A contract of carriage for an airline to transport a passenger from one point to another.
ticket on departure
Transportation ticket collected at the point of departure such as an airline ticket counter at an airport.
A city for which a flight coupon has been issued.
time and mileage rate
Car rental rate based on fixed charge for the rental period plus a charge for each kilometer or mile driven during the period of the rental.
TOD (see “Ticket on Departure”)
A registration form required by certain countries indicating a traveler’s intended stay; used in lieu of a Visa and common in Latin America.
A Ticket issued; defined as all airline and rail tickets (electronic and paper) issued by BCD Travel or reserved by BCD Travel through a third party, regardless of whether the ticket is subsequently used, refunded, or voided in whole or in part. Cancellation of a reservation before a ticket is issued is not considered a transaction. Optional: Hotel and car booking made, regardless of whether or not the traveler uses the hotel or car reservation.
transaction – domestic air
Domestic – travel between two destinations that are within the same country. e.g. Frankfurt to Berlin
transaction – regional air
Regional – Travel within the same continent. e.g. Madrid to London
transaction – international air
International – Travel between two continents. e.g. New York to London
transaction – offline – traditional
A transaction that is initiated by an agent following a call/email request by a
transaction – online high touch
A transaction that originates via an online booking tool, but then requires more than one agent intervention (one touch).
transaction – online low touch
A transaction that originates via an online booking tool and then requires agent intervention or manual review/processing that is initiated by the customer.
transaction – online no touch
“Touchless E-fulfillment transaction” An electronic transaction entirely processed through an online booking tool and BCD central fulfillment service, without any agent intervention and where invoicing is provided via email.
A point at which the passenger changes aircraft; if the change is to/from the same carrier, it is an online transfer; if the change is to/from different carriers, it is an interline transfer.
An area within an airport for the sole purpose of international flight connections; travelers do not clear immigration or customs to enter the transit lounge as it is considered to be an international point.
Any stop at an intermediate point which does not fall into the definition of a stopover whether or not a change of planes is involved.
A BCD Travel umbrella brand name for our technology suite, which includes a variety of products listed below.
- TripSource:Active Itinerary
A single point of access for traveler and travel arrangers for active and historical travel detail, including real time flight status, itinerary details, destination information and invoicing, billing and expense information.
- TripSource:Flight Alert
Keeps travelers informed & productive while on the road by providing flight status information, including delays and real-time gate changes, for BCD Travel bookings.
Drive touch-less transactions with as little human intervention as possible while driving traveler contact behavior to minimize touches.
- TripSource:Portal (TSP)
A comprehensive global solution to address traveler needs, travel program and corporation objectives. Arming travelers with rich content, productivity tools and critical safeguards for business travel, TripSource:Portal empowers travel programs as a centralized communications vehicle to deliver relevant, timely information and critical alerts to targeted audiences.
The Portal expands traveler services while aligning program needs to drive savings, support business objectives and avoid corporate travel program risks.
- TripSource:Profile Manager (TSPM)
Drives optimal data management by integrating profile management and online booking, and promoting secure web-based self-service maintenance of traveler-level detail.
- TripSource:Quality Measurement (TSQM)
Ensures a means to track and manage supplier & transaction quality in addition to resolution of client concerns.
- TripSource:Rail Search (TSRS)
BCD own rail booking tool for Deutsche Bahn only.
- TripSource:Ticket Tracker
BCD manages and recovers committed travel dollars. Based on markets and supplier rules, BCD communicates with travelers to prevent loss of committed funds and when to apply unused funds toward future travel.
- TripSource:Trip Authorizer
In response to growing concern for compliance, this module enables clients to implement pre-trip authorization requirements as well as post-ticketing compliance reporting.
Transportation Security Administration
twin for sole use
A twin-bedded reserved for sole occupency and charged out at a rate that falls between the single and double room price.
Two Factor Authentication
Also known as 2FA. Method of accessing a secure environment where a person proves their identity with two of three methods
User-Defined Interface Data. UDID remarks are standard and contain predefined reporting information such as lost hotel night reason codes, merchant billing codes or additional traveler data fields.
unlimited mileage rate
Car rental rate that covers all costs, other than insurance and petrol, for the duration of the rental, regardless of the distance driven.
Move to a better class of airline service, larger rental car or more luxurious hotel room.
Airline designated as the “owning” ticketed carrier; the carrier on whose “plate” the ticket is issued. The validating carrier is the carrier to which payment is submitted and is usually the first carrier on the itinerary (domestic) or the carrier on the first international flight (international). If a ticket is issued on multiple carriers or is validated on a carrier not on the itinerary, the validating carrier is responsible for payment to the other airlines on the ticket.
The process of stamping an air ticket or other airline document, at the time of issue, with the issue date, name and location of the issuing office and its IATA code number. Tickets not bearing such a stamp re invalid and will not be accepted by airlines.
value-added tax (VAT)
A general tax that applies, in principle, to all commercial activities involving the production and distribution of goods and the provision of services.
Value-added tax, or VAT, is included in hotel, dining and car rental bills and more when travelers go to countries that assess the tax. It can be a significant expense: VAT rates can be as high as 25%. The good news is most T&E-related VAT is eligible for reclaim. The bad news: In the past, it’s been hard to collect. But automation has made VAT reclaim for European Union transactions much easier. BCD Travel has partnered with VAT-recovery firm Taxeo to automate the process.
virtual credit card (VCC)
A VCC isn’t a physical card, but it has many of the same features as plastic corporate cards.
A virtual payment is a terminal-based payment method where the payment is delivered through a virtual card (VCC) instead of by check or cash.
An endorsement or stamp placed into a passport by officials of a foreign government giving a traveler permission to visit; not all countries require visas.
VCC (Virtual Call Center)
A network of call centers where the client calls one phone number, regardless of where they are based, that will be routed through to an available agent. For multi-national accounts this service would be multi-lingual as appropriate.
Virtual Multiple Purpose Document. A document issued by a travel agency or airline, working with BSP, as proof of payment for transactions and services, either related to an eticket already issued (example: rebooking fees) or for services other than flights (for items like surface transportation, transfers, and excess luggage charges).
A traffic document which has been spoiled or canceled.
Documents issued to confirm arrangements or used to be exchanged for services.
A list of people seeking a travel service that is sold out; generally, as other travelers cancel, waitlisted individuals are confirmed in the order in which their waitlist request was received – sometimes prioritized by frequent traveler membership.
When a hotel is sold out and there are no rooms available for a person who has a confirmed reservation, the hotel provide alternate accommodations at a different hotel.
an agreement to pay to use an aircraft with a crew, fuel, and insurance
Aircraft with wide passenger cabins and seating configurations that require more than one aisle. Current models include Boeing 747, 777 or Airbus A380, A350
system that checks hand luggage at an airport, without damaging, for example, light-sensitive film material or laptops.
is a variable pricing strategy, based on understanding, anticipating and influencing consumer behavior in order to maximize revenue or profits from a fixed, time-limited resource (such as airline seats or hotel room reservations).
Zulu Time Zone (Z) has no offset from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Zulu Time Zone is often used in aviation and the military as another name for UTC +0.
Two Factor Authentication. Method of accessing a secure environment where a person proves their identity with two of three methods.